How to Account for Research and Development Costs: A Guide


accounting for research and development

In-depth analysis, examples and insights to give you an advantage in understanding the requirements and implications of financial reporting issues. KPMG’s multi-disciplinary approach and deep, practical industry knowledge help clients meet challenges and respond to opportunities. These arrangements are frequently constructed as limited partnerships, where a related party fulfills the role of general partner. The general partner may be authorized to obtain additional funding by selling limited-partner interests, or extending loans or advances to the partnership that may be repaid from future royalties. Note that the company doesn’t go into length about what exactly the R&D spend is for. According to the notes, the company’s year-over-year growth was «driven primarily by increases in headcount-related expenses».


accounting for research and development

Our respondents are comprised of chief financial officers (45.65%), chief accounting officers and controllers (21.20%), vice presidents (19.02%), directors (5.98%), and a few other titles (8.15%). Panel B provides firm demographic information.9 Mean annual sales are about $2.3 billion, mean total assets are about $4.5 billion, and mean PP&E is about $1.0 billion. The final cost element is intangibles accounting for research and development purchased from others—that is, acquired in-process R&D. If these elements have alternative future uses, they are capitalized as intangible assets and subsequently amortized as R&D expense, or expensed immediately if they have no alternative future uses. Overall, this discussion and Figure 1 highlight how, in accordance with ASC 730, R&D expenditures include expensed and capitalized R&D.

Research and Development (R&D) Expenses: Definition and Example

  • In this example, Company A has no explicit or implicit obligation to repay any of the funds and therefore determines that the arrangement is an obligation to perform contractual research and development services.
  • Examples of facilities and equipment used in R&D activities include, but are not limited to, (1) buildings, building improvements, and leasehold improvements, (2) tools and machines, (3) testing and measurement devices, and (4) computers and peripheral devices.
  • Community Solutions is a nonprofit founded in 2011 by Rosanne Haggerty, with the ambitious goal of ending chronic homelessness in America.
  • It aims to provide researchers with a new perspective to promote the development of this field.

Third, respondents may provide answers that they consider to be socially acceptable rather than providing fully candid answers. To mitigate this concern, we use indirect questioning whereby the scenario and questions focus on a hypothetical firm and management team. In addition to the survey, we interview 7 financial executives from different public firms. Of these executives, 3 are CFOs, 3 are controllers, and 1 is a vice-president who oversees global technical accounting.8 All of the executives are knowledgeable about R&D accounting, and the firms make significant R&D investments.

Products and services

A company that focuses on development and buys in research can treat the cost of that research as expenses, together with the cost of any activity needed to make it into a commercial concern. Given the rapid rate of technological advancement, R&D is important for companies to stay competitive. Specifically, R&D allows companies to create products that are difficult for their competitors to replicate. Meanwhile, R&D efforts can lead to improved productivity that helps increase margins, further creating an edge in outpacing competitors. From a broader perspective, R&D can allow a company to stay ahead of the curve, anticipating customer demands or trends. Basic research is aimed at a fuller, more complete understanding of the fundamental aspects of a concept or phenomenon.

  • Often the only piece of information that is known with certainty is the amount that has been spent.
  • Management believes that missing the target will cause the company’s stock price to fall significantly.
  • Development is the application of research findings or other knowledge to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved materials, devices, products, processes, systems, or services, before the start of commercial production or use.
  • However, if these investments lead to successful innovations, the long-term benefits can enhance profitability, ultimately improving the ROA over time.
  • This provides further evidence that capitalized R&D assets are a meaningful proportion of total PP&E and that firms frequently capitalize R&D expenditures.

This method can lead to significant fluctuations in earnings, especially for companies with substantial R&D activities. However, it provides a more conservative view of a company’s financial health by not inflating assets with costs that may not yield future benefits. Tech startups, for example, often expense their R&D costs to reflect the high-risk nature of their innovation efforts, providing a clearer picture of their current financial performance. R&D may be beneficial to a company’s bottom line, but it is considered an expense.

  • We integrate the interviews into our discussion of the survey results to complement our survey responses and provide additional insights.
  • Many governments offer incentives to encourage innovation, recognizing the broader economic benefits of research and development.
  • We begin with 1988 because that is the first year that operating cash flows are available from the statement of cash flows.
  • During the research phase, costs are expensed as incurred, reflecting the uncertainty and exploratory nature of these activities.
  • These estimates are typically based on contracted amounts applied to the number of patients enrolled, the number of active clinical sites, the duration for which the patients will be enrolled in the study and the percentage of work completed to date.
  • Company A pays the CRO a non-refundable, upfront payment of $3 million in order to carry out the research under the agreement.
  • The hot spots and future development trends of VOC emission calculation are analyzed from the perspectives of thesis subject words, cooperative relationships, co-citation relationships, journals, and core papers.

Company A should expense the donation (generally as selling, general and administrative expense) when incurred (normally when paid) or at the time an unconditional promise to give cash is made, whichever is sooner. Under the contractual terms of the agreement, the milestone payment becomes payable upon the resolution of a contingency. Company A should accrue the milestone payment when the achievement of the milestone is probable (the amount of the payment is reasonably estimable, as it is a fixed amount under the terms of the arrangement). Company A entered into a collaboration arrangement with Company B. Company A paid Company B an upfront fee upon signing the arrangement and will pay Company B a discrete milestone payment of $2 million upon FDA approval. One notable difference between the UK and international treatment is that the UK has a separate standard for the treatment of R&D (SSAP 13), whereas under International Accounting Standards the accounting for R&D is dealt with under IAS 38, Intangible Assets.

accounting for research and development

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However, if the capitalized R&D projects do not yield the expected returns, the company may face future write-downs, negatively impacting equity and increasing the debt-to-equity ratio. Immediate expensing of R&D costs, while potentially leading to higher short-term volatility in financial statements, provides a more transparent view of the company’s current financial obligations and equity position. On the other hand, expensing R&D costs means recognizing them immediately in the income statement.

Results for hypothetical actions involving R&D investment

accounting for research and development

What Are Research and Development (R&D) Expenses?

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